Glossary of Drugs That May Fight Aging


4-OH-alpha-phenyl-N-tert-butyl nitrone (PBN)
antioxidant compound. Along with other nitrones, it is being investigated for use in treatment of neurocognitive diseases.
17a-estradiol
one of the estrogen hormones. Has been shown to improve metabolic and inflammatory dysfunction and to increase lifespan in mice, although the mechanism is not clear.
Acarbose
diabetes drug similar to metformin in that it lowers the blood sugar in blood serum, and has been shown to increase lifespan in mice.
Ampakines
class of drugs that modulate neurotransmitters in the brain. Change concentration of neurotransmitter glutamate. May produce cognitive benefits but have not advanced past research studies.
Aspirin
widely used analgesic, often recommended to forestall aging-related diseases because of its antiinflammatory effect.
Donepezil
medication that works in brain to inhibit acetylcholinesterase and thereby increase the level of acetylcholine. Sold under the trade name Aricept, it is used to treat Alzheimer’s Disease.
Everolimus
immunosuppressant drug that has attracted the interest of anti-aging researchers. inhibitor of mTOR.
Galantamine
cholinergic enhancer medicine. Inhibits the enzyme acetylcholinesterase. First derived from a plant. Sold under the name Razadyne, it is used for treatment of dementia. Treats symptoms but not causes of Alzheimer's.
Metformin
medicine used to treat type 2 diabetes. Lowers blood sugar levels and has attracted interest as an anti-aging medicine.
mTOR
mammalian target of rapamycin. Important in biochemistry. Interesting for us because inhibitors of this metabolic pathway are possible treatment for aging that may slow or reverse the aging process.
Nordihydroguaiaretic acid
strong anti-oxidant that has attracted interest as cognitive enhancer. However, it has potentially severe side effects that dampen enthusiasm.
Nootropics
aka smart drugs, neuro enhancers, and cognitive enhancers. Substances that purportedly improve cognitive functions such as memory, motivation, attention, and concentration, in healthy individuals.
Oxaloacetic acid
biochemical intermediate in many synthesis pathways. Supplements of oxaloacetic acid have been shown to be correlated with reduced inflammation and growth of neurons.
Rapamycin
aka sirolimus - immunosuppressant drug that has attracted the interest of anti-aging researchers. Inhibitor of mTOR. First derived from a plant.
Resveratrol
phytochemical (compound found in plants) especially prevalent in wine. Attracted interest as an anti-aging compound but there is no solid evidence it improves longevity.
Rivastigmine
cholinesterase inhibitor works in brain to slow action of butyrylcholinesterase and acetylcholinesterase, which are enzymes that break down acetylcholine. Sold under the trade name Exelon, it is used to treat Alzheimer’s Disease.
Senolytics
from the words senescence and -lytic, "destroying" - name given to compounds under investigation for slowing aging by inducing the death of old cells, to enable new cells to form.
Senostatic
material or process that suppresses or slows senescence.
Senostatic
material or process that suppresses or slows senescence.
Simvastatin
medicine given to patients to lower serum cholesterol level and reduce risk of heart disease. In addition to reducing incidence of strokes, this drug is thought to reverse cognitive decline.
Spermidine
polyamine found throughout the body that the body uses to build more complex polyamine. Exogenous polyamine given to animals seems to have a beneficial effect and slow progression of age-related diseases, but the mechanisms are unknown.
Temsirolimus
anticancer drug that has attracted the interest of anti-aging researchers. inhibitor of mTOR. Prodrug of rapamycin.